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As with most places, the answer to what people eat in China has a lot to do with the history of the country, their geography, and the needs and likes of the people who live there!
Chinese cuisine is often discussed in terms of region. While some areas like the Canton province are often known for eating lots of rice, noodles tend to be more popular in the north, where growing rice is difficult because of the climate. Other regions, like the Sichuan and Hunan provinces, are known for their use of spicy peppers.
Many Chinese dishes consist of noodles or rice prepared with vegetables, tofu, or meat, which is usually pork or chicken. Some Chinese dishes that you might have tried include Peking Duck, spicy Kung Pao Chicken, and dumplings filled with pork, chicken, or vegetables! Soup (like Wanton Soup or Egg Drop Soup) is also a regular part of most Chinese meals, and tea is a common drink. Frequently used ingredients include bean curd and soy sauce (both made from soy beans), Five Spice Powder (a combination of cloves, cinnamon, star anise, fennel seeds, and Sichuan peppercorns), and bamboo shoots!
Meals in China are often prepared in bite-sized pieces, a practice developed to help cook foods faster in order to save fuel. With no knives needed at the table, most foods are eaten with chopsticks